This course is developed within the project “Fostering Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Cultural and Creative Industries through Interdisciplinary Education (FENICE) with the support of the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union.

It is designed for adult learners who have graduated vocational and/or higher education in business and economic studies (B&E) and who want to improve their knowledge, skills, and competences for pursuing careers in the field of the cultural and creative industries (CCIs). The first immediate audience are the persons employed in the administration of the cultural organisations, but along with the development of the experience economy, the professionals engaged in event management, experiential tourism, city and public administrations are also a main target group. In more general terms, the course is designed for the so-called intrapreneurs who want to develop and sustain CCI projects.

The course is interdisciplinary and unites subjects and themes from arts-, heritage-, culture-, IT-, media and business studies in ways that corresponds to the varied, innovative, and socially valuable profile of the CCIs.

CCIs are content-, knowledge- and technology-driven and as such, they are by definition а subject of interdisciplinary research and education. CCIs combine the creation (often by artists or designers), production (often by companies) and distribution (often by multinationals) of goods and services that are cultural in their nature and usually protected by intellectual property rights (IPR).

Raising the CCI-literacy and skills of the business and economics graduates will provide the sector with professionals that can lead and contribute to the viable and sustainable functioning not only of the CCIs themselves, but also to the many other related sectors of the experiential economy such as tourism and hospitality.

Course Objectives/Goals

This course is intended to overview the mode operation of CCI enterprises and to explore the main practical facing cultural entrepreneurs, professionals and policy-makers. It builds on the interdisciplinary approach that is pertinent to CCIs to showcase how creativity and culture can be sustainably commercialized and bring to life viable and innovative enterprises.


In this sense, the goals of the course are:

  • To develop a holistic overview of the issues that impact the CCIs;
  • To build knowledge of business and management of innovations within the context of CCIs;
  • To develop a set of skills, knowledge, tools and practices that will enable future managers and entrepreneurs in CCIs to work in multidisciplinary teams and become agents for social change and innovation;
  • To foster efficient cooperation and co-working among the professionals with artistic and non-artistic background in the CCI enterprises.

Instructional Methods

Considering teaching-learning strategies/methodologies, the main approach in this course is experiential learning. Accordingly, this course makes use of different teaching, learning and assessment methods, in line with the needs of the students and the learning objectives. Teaching methodologies were designed to boost autonomous work while respecting students’ diversity and needs, allowing flexible learning paths.

This course aims at fostering an active learning environment, proven effective in developing higher-order cognitive skills. By being involved in an active and participatory learning process, enhanced by the integration of digital technologies, students intervene directly in the construction of knowledge, questioning and co-creating it. As opposed to conventional approaches, generally passive and unidirectional, the students become the centre of the learning process and the trainer/teacher assumes the role of mediator.

Learning outcomes

Upon the completion of the course, the trainees should be able to:

  • Interpret the key characteristics of the economy of the cultural and creative industries, the important challenges the industries face, such as technological, legal and economic, and the policies adopted to meet those challenges;
  • Develop business models for creative business ventures, including strategic planning for entrepreneurship initiatives, innovative methods for generating funds, stakeholder management and development of partnerships, governance structures of creative enterprises, etc.;
  • Discuss the innovation process in cultural and creative industries as an open, interactive, collaborative and interdisciplinary process;
  • Identify new opportunities within social and business problems and develop business solutions, while at the same time, securing revenue sources that achieving financial sustainability;
  • Work in interdisciplinary CCI teams.


In addition, the course encourages the implementation of the European Entrepreneurship Competence Framework (EntreComp)[1]. Competencies are presented by area and with reference to whether they are improved (when they are effectively developed within the scope of the contents foreseen for the course) and/or assessed (when subject to evaluation), and with regards to the two content units proposed within this course – Unit 1: Understanding Entrepreneurship in the CCIs and Unit 2: Entrepreneurial Practice – Modelling a CCI Enterprise – which are further detailed in section IV of this syllabus.



Course content

The contents of the course refer to the following main considerations and rationales in the CCIs:

  • Mutual understanding and comprehension between artistic creativity and economics/management, toward feasibility and economic viability of CCI product/project is indispensable. Professionals with both types of profiles need to be aware of the necessity to develop and employ skills for team work and cooperation.
  • The development of the creative process is different from its transfer to third parties, therefore each participant in the course is required to acquire a business discipline (to see if it can be implemented in the form of diagrams specific to each artistic discipline).
  • The key feature of the creative economy is the transformation of artistic value in economic value; as such all the characteristics that give value to an artistic product will have to be monetized as economic values (thus generating business): uniqueness, non-standardization as impossibility of reproduction, technological process, recognition, copyrights, etc., that is, understanding the artistic product in relation to the market is essential.
  • Creativity should be the main tool and competence to work within the CCIs.  Usually perceived as a natural ability, individual creativity used in teamwork is able to accelerate the evolutionary pace of ideas within a team when used in project-based team work. During CCI projects, any type of creativity could be the difference of added value and capacity in a competitive market – thinking outside the box, avoiding clichés, permanent adaptation to contemporary realities - regardless of their nature - cultural, economic, technological.
  • Within a CCI project team, all members are/should be creative, although only the ones with artistic background (A & H) are creators, from the point of view of professional skills in artistic transposition technology. The creators are motivated by the contemporary cultural and creative context, by the media exposure of the projects’ end product and obviously by the economic benefits of the CCI activities. Feasibility, economic viability and potential success of the CCI team product can be secured or positively evaluated only through the economic and management expertise provided by the members of the team with economic background. The cultural context should definitely be evaluated constantly together within the team, by both artists and CCI economics/management experts. There is also necessary to have a certain level of comprehension within the CCI team – the access to other one subjectivity /artistic creativity versus economic feasibility – and balance must always be reached for the lasting development of the project.
  • Eastern, mainstream stakeholders usually state cultural policies tainted by latency, protochronism and reactionary traditionalism. There are some exceptions however: cultural institutions which are financed through competition CCI projects, private stakeholders with contemporary visions over CCI, young galleries, cultural/artistic hubs, independent galleries, private enterprises as cultural stakeholders/non-government organizations, local authorities interested in new cultural visions for their cities/regions. Stakeholders in cultural policies are either mainstream (state driven, institutionally or financed) or alternative (independent/young galleries, private architecture/design offices, independent cultural festivals, media, galleries, cinema, design, multimedia, etc.).
  • The Test of Reality – even before the pandemic, it was obvious that financing CCI is more and more connected with some major subjects – is in improving quality of life, especially within urban environment, ecology, recycling, involvement to generate solutions for social problems, preserving and restoration of cultural heritage. Art for the sake of art is no longer an option for public funding. Media exposure is essential for any CCI activity/projects, such as social platforms, the World Wide Web, online publications, etc.
  • Involvement in social activities of education – such as creative workshops, youth creative education. Even in a technological environment, an economic option for added value is creativity, originality, artistic creation inserted within production process and end product.
  • Contemporary CCI challenge traditional B&E activities by exploiting the opportunity to create added value while lacking any significant investments at the start or during the activities of the new team/business. The only solution is to mobilize individual creativity, digital and analogue technological skills and B&E expertise.

The contents of the course are divided in two major thematic Units, with specific learning objectives and learning outcomes.

Unit 1 learning objective and outcome

Unit 1: Understanding Entrepreneurship in the CCIs

Specific learning objective

- To enable trainees to comprehend the CCIs, their connectivity, innovation and social innovation potential while focusing on open-science approaches, regulative and ethical issues, as well as the relevant innovative, participatory and interdisciplinary working approaches in the CCIs

Specific Expected learning outcomes:

In addition to the generic course goals, Unit 1 will allow trainees to:

  • Discern the key stakeholders related to cultural policies;
  • Identify the economic implications of cultural policies;
  • Distinguish the CCI project types;
  • Distinguish roles in CCI teams and communication channels;
  • Interpret the ethics and intellectual property rights related to the work and the products of the CCIs;
  • Analyse the importance of new digital transposition techniques and contemporary; technologies for CCI products, projects, activities.

Unit 2 learning objective and outcome

Unit 2: Entrepreneurial Practice – Modelling a CCI Enterprise

Specific learning objectives:

- To enhance trainees’ understanding of the specific nature of CCIs’ ventures and associated managerial specifics that can make them viable as economic activities while focusing on cooperation, co-creation and interdisciplinarity.

Specific Expected learning outcomes:

In addition to the generic course goals, Unit 2 will enable the trainees to:

  • Generate and/or identify a business idea in the CCIs;
  • Select and use facts, theories and concepts from different disciplines/knowledge areas appropriately in formulating solutions to entrepreneurial problems;
  • Get and manage the material, non-material and digital resources needed to turn ideas into action;
  • Plan financing to make sure a value-creating activity can last over a longer term;
  • Work together and co-operate with others to develop ideas and turn them into action, in particular with artists and cultural professionals.

General List of Readings

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