This course is developed within the project “Fostering Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Cultural and Creative Industries through Interdisciplinary Education (FENICE) with the support of the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union.

It is designed for BA and MA students in arts and humanities (A&H) who want to pursue self-employment or manage creative teams within their careers. In broader terms, the course would be useful for any artist and artist-to-be as it will provide a thorough understanding of the entrepreneurial and management practices that define the modern creative and cultural business. The overall aim is to build the main skills that are needed for career success and creative impact. 

The course is interdisciplinary and presents the theory and practice of entrepreneurship and management combining guided and experiential learning activities.

CCIs are content, knowledge and technology-driven and as such, they are, by definition, а subject to interdisciplinary research and education. CCIs combine the creation (often by artists or designers), production (often by companies) and distribution (often by multinationals) of goods and services that are cultural in their nature and usually protected by intellectual property rights.

Developing the entrepreneurial and managerial skills of the students and graduates in the arts and humanities will provide the CCIs with thoughtful, innovative and self-sustainable professionals that can lead and contribute to the viable and sustainable functioning of the creative economy.


Course Objectives/Goals

This course is intended to provide a multi-faceted insight into the operation of CCI enterprises for the students in arts and humanities and to discuss the practical and theoretical issues facing creative and cultural professionals and entrepreneurs. It builds on the interdisciplinary approach that is pertinent to CCIs to showcase how creativity and culture can be sustainably commercialized and bring to life viable and innovative enterprises.

In this sense, the goals of the course are

  • To equip students with specific managerial skills that are relevant to the CCIs;
  • To improve the entrepreneurial skills and competencies of the students;
  • To build students’ capacity in forming and working in cultural and creative teams; solidly anchored in economic realities and up-to-date cultural context;
  • To familiarize students with the main important aspects of self-employment in CCIs; such as personal promotion in the on-line environment, organising artistic events and artistic research;
  • To prepare students for working in interdisciplinary CCI teams.


Instructional Methods

Considering teaching-learning strategies/methodologies, the main approach in this course is experiential learning. Accordingly, this course makes use of different teaching, learning and assessment methods, in line with the needs of the students and the learning objectives. Teaching methodologies were designed to boost autonomous work while respecting students’ diversity and needs, allowing flexible learning paths.

This course aims at fostering an active learning environment, proven effective in developing higher-order cognitive skills. By being involved in an active and participatory learning process, enhanced by the integration of digital technologies, students intervene directly in the construction of knowledge, questioning and co-creating it. As opposed to conventional approaches, generally passive and unidirectional, the students become the centre of the learning process and the trainer/teacher assumes the role of mediator.


Learning outcomes

Upon the completion of the course, the students should be able to

  • Apply concepts related to CCIs, notably when analysing and assessing real-life cases
  • Utilize the artistic research methods such as documenting and archiving, trial and error process, presentations, etc.
  • Interpret the key characteristics of the economy of the cultural and creative industries, the important challenges the industries face, such as technological, legal and economic – and the policies adopted to meet those challenges
  • Develop models for creative business ventures, including strategic planning for entrepreneurship initiatives, innovative methods for generating funds, stakeholder management and development of partnerships, governance structures of creative enterprises, etc.
  • Discuss the innovation process in CCIs as an open, interactive, collaborative and interdisciplinary process
  • Identify new opportunities within social and business problems and develop business solutions, while at the same time, securing revenue sources that achieving financial sustainability
  • Justify the need for business to demonstrate accountability by regularly measuring performance and impact
  • Design artistic events (exhibitions, workshops, promotions, etc.) and online promotion campaigns

In addition, the course encourages the implementation of the European Entrepreneurship Competence Framework (EntreComp)[1]. Competencies are presented by area and with reference to whether they are improved (when they are effectively developed within the scope of the contents foreseen for the course) and/or assessed (when subject to evaluation), and with regards to the two content units proposed within this course – Unit 1: Understanding Entrepreneurship in the CCIs and Unit 2: Entrepreneurial Practice – Modelling a CCI Enterprise – which are further detailed in section IV of this syllabus.



Course content

The contents of the course refer to the following main considerations and rationales in the CCIs:

  • Mutual understanding and comprehension between artistic creativity and economics/management, toward feasibility and economic viability of CCI product/project is indispensable. Professionals with both types of profiles need to be aware of the necessity to develop and employ skills for team work and cooperation;
  • The development of the creative process is different from its transfer to third parties, therefore each participant in the course is required to acquire a business discipline (to see if it can be implemented in the form of diagrams specific to each artistic discipline);
  • The key feature of the creative economy is the transformation of artistic value in economic value; as such all the characteristics that give value to an artistic product will have to be monetized as economic values (thus generating business): uniqueness, non-standardization as impossibility of reproduction, technological process, recognition, copyrights, etc., that is, understanding the artistic product in relation to the market is essential.
  • Creativity should be the main tool and competence to work within the CCIs. Usually perceived as a natural ability, individual creativity used in teamwork is able to accelerate the evolutionary pace of ideas within a teamwhen used in  project-based team work. . During CCI projects, any type of creativity could be the difference of added value and capacity in a competitive market – thinking outside the box, avoiding clichés, permanent adaptation to contemporary realities - regardless of their nature - cultural, economic, technological.
  • Within a CCI project team, all members are/should be creative, although only the ones with artistic background (A & H) are creators, from the point of view of professional skills in artistic transposition technology. The creators are motivated by the contemporary cultural and creative context, by the media exposure of the projects’ end product and obviously by the economic benefits of the CCI activities. Feasibility, economic viability and potential success of the CCI team product can be secured or positively evaluated only through the economic and management expertise provided by the members of the team with economic background. The cultural context should definitely be evaluated constantly together within the team, by both artists and CCI economics/management experts. There is also necessary to have a certain level of comprehension within the CCI team – the access to other one subjectivity /artistic creativity versus economic feasibility – and balance must always be reached for the lasting development of the project.
  • Eastern, mainstream stakeholders usually state cultural policies tainted by latency, protochronism and reactionary traditionalism. There are some exceptions however: cultural institutions which are financed through competition CCI projects, private stakeholders with contemporary visions over CCI, young galleries, cultural/artistic hubs, independent galleries, private enterprises as cultural stakeholders/non-government organizations, local authorities interested in new cultural visions for their cities/regions. Stakeholders in cultural policies are either mainstream (state driven, institutionally or financed) or alternative (independent/young galleries, private architecture/design offices, independent cultural festivals, media, galleries, cinema, design, multimedia, etc.).
  • The Test of Reality – even before the pandemic, it was obvious that financing CCI is more and more connected with some major subjects – is in improving quality of life, especially within urban environment, ecology, recycling, involvement to generate solutions for social problems, preserving and restoration of cultural heritage. Art for the sake of art is no longer an option for public funding. Media exposure is essential for any CCI activity/projects, such as social platforms, the World Wide Web, online publications, etc.
  • Involvement in social activities of education – such as creative workshops, youth creative education. Even in a technological environment, an economic option for added value is creativity, originality, artistic creation inserted within production process and end product.

The contents of the course are divided in two major thematic Units, with specific learning objectives and learning outcomes


Unit 1 learning objective and outcome

Unit 1: Understanding Entrepreneurship in the CCIs

(Concepts and Policy Overview)

Specific learning objective:

- To allow students to comprehend the liaison of CCIs with the other sectors of the economy, their innovation and social innovation potential while focusing on the essence of artistic research, open-science approaches and their practical implementation for artists/creators as well as on the relevant innovative, participatory and interdisciplinary working approaches in the CCIs

Specific expected learning outcomes:

In addition to the generic course goals, Unit 1 will enable the students to

  • Understand the CCIs and their position in society and economy;
  • Differentiate and select the CCI project types;
  • Distinguish the roles in CCI teams and communication channels;
  • Recognize ethics issues related to the work and the products of the CCIs;
  • Define the key stakeholders related to cultural policies;
  • Identify the economic implications of cultural policies;
  • Interpret issues pertaining to intellectual property in CCIs;
  • Analyze the importance of new digital transposition techniques and contemporary; technologies for CCI products, projects, activities;
  • Define the main aspects of the entrepreneurial process.


Unit 2 learning objective and outcome

Unit 2: Entrepreneurial Practice – Modelling a CCI Enterprise

(A rally through the different steps in developing a Business Plan)

Specific learning objective:

- To enhance the students’ understanding of the entrepreneurial process from idea generation to concept development and creation of a venture in CCIs while focusing on cooperation, co-creation and interdisciplinarity, and using business planning as a pedagogical tool.

Specific expected learning outcomes:

In addition to the generic course goals, Unit 2 will enable the students to

  • Generate and/or identify a business idea in the CCIs;
  • Use facts, theories and concepts from different disciplines/knowledge areas appropriately in formulating solutions to entrepreneurial problems;
  • Distinguish relationships among various components of business and its environment;
  • Select relevant material, non-material and digital resources needed to turn ideas into action;
  • Plan value-creating activity which can be financially sustainable over time;
  • Promote CCIs’ activities, products and projects through free (costs and use) communication channels;
  • Work with scale models, artefacts, and projects in progress through exposure on social media/social platforms and various sites (this may also include testing scaled or real size models within urban or other environments;
  • Collaborate to develop business ideas for the CCIs, in particular with artists and cultural professionals.


General List of Readings

  • The Museum of Broken Relationships – Modern Love in 203 everyday objects, by Olinka Vištica and Dražen Grubišić, ed. by Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2017, Great Britain, ISBN (hardback) 978 1 4746 0549 6.
  • Luc Long & Mark Dion, Carnet de fouilles & Lab Book, ed. by Actes Sud & Musée Departamental  Arles Antique / Luc Long, Carnet de fouilles, Sous la direction de David Djaoui, Actes Sud & Musée Departamental  Arles Antique.
  • David Usborne, Foreword by Thomas Heatherwick, Objectivity, Thames & Hudson, London, UK, 2010.
  • Jonathan D. Lippincott, Large Scale – Fabricating Sculpture in the 1960s and 1970s, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 2012.
  • Douglas Gunn, Roy Luckett & Josh Sims, Vintage Menswear – A Collection from The Vintage Showroom, 2017, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, UK.
  • Douglas Gunn & Roy Luckett, The Vintage Showroom – An Archive of Menswear, 2015, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, UK.
  • Contributors, Author Collective,  60.  /  Innovators shaping our creative future, Thames & Hudson Ltd,  2009, London, UK
  • Neil Spiller & Nic Clear, Educating Architects: How tomorrow's practitioners will learn today, Thames & Hudson,  London, UK, 2014
  • Tristan Manco, Big Art Small Art, Thames & Hudson, London, UK, 2014
  • Rian Hughes, Ideas can be Dangerous, ed. by Fiell
  • Inna Alesina, Ellen Lupton, Exploring Materials – Creative Design for Everyday Objects, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore,  New York, 2010.
  • Klanten, Robert, Schulze, Floyd, SARAH ILLENBERGER, published by Gestalten, Berlin, 2011, ISBN 978-3-89955-385-7.
  • Llewellyn, Nigel, Williamson, Beth, + contributors,  THE LONDON ART SCHOOLS: REFORMING THE ART WORLD, 1960 TO NOW, Tate Publishing, 2015, ISBN 978 1 84976 296 0.
  • McLellan, Todd, THINGS COME APART – A Teardown manual for modern living, ed. by Thames & Hudson, London, 2013, ISBN 978-0-500-51676-8.
  • Mia, Mini Miss, Yip, Penter, BAG DESIGN – A handbook for accessories designers, ed. by Fashionary International Ltd., 2016, ISBN 978-988-77108-0-6.
  • Müller, Bernard, Snoep, Jacomijn Nanette, VOUDOU/VOODOO – The Arbogast Collection, ed. by Éditions Loco/Marc Arbogast, Strasbourg, 2013, ISBN 978-2-919507-16-0.
  • Sudjic, Deyan, THE LANGUAGE OF THINGS – Understanding the world of desirable objects, ed. by W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2009, ISBN 978-0-393-07081-1.
  • Abisuga-Oyekunle, O. A. & Fillis, I. R. (2017), The role of handicraft micro-enterprises as a catalyst for youth employment. Creative Industries Journal, 10:1, 59-74, DOI: 10.1080/17510694.2016.1247628
  • Aquino, E., Phillips, R., and Sung, H. (2012). Tourism, culture, and the creative industries: Reviving distressed neighbourhoods with arts-based community tourism. Tourism, Culture & Communication, 12(1), 5–18.
  • Bakas, F.E., Duxbury, N. & De Castro, V.T. (2018). ‘Creative tourism: Catalysing artisan entrepreneur networks in rural Portugal.’ International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research 24 (4), pp.731-752,
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  • ClydeBan Business (2016). Business Plan QuickStart Guide: The Simplified Beginner’s Guide to Writing a Business Plan. ClydeBan Media
  • Colette, H. (2009). Women and the creative industries: exploring the popular appeal. Creative Industries Journal, 2:2, 143-160, DOI: 10.1386/cij.2.2.143/1
  • De Beukelaer, C. & O’Connor, J. (2017). The Creative Economy and the Development Agenda: The Use and Abuse of ‘Fast Policy’. In Polly Stupples & Katerina Teaiwa (eds.), Contemporary Perspectives on Art and International Development (pp. 27-47). Routledge.
  • Duxbury, N., Albino, S., & Carvalho, C. (orgs.) (2021), Creative Tourism: Cultural Resources, Entrepreneurship and Engaging Creative Travellers [forthcoming]. CAB International.
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